The European Union fined eight financial institutions a combined total of $2.3 billion over their alleged role in the manipulation of the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The manipulation of LIBOR is one of the largest banking scandals of our time. According to the Economist, when the rate is manipulated, it affects payments for more than $800 trillion of financial instruments and 99 percent of all commercial products including mortgages, credit cards and pensions, as reported by CNN. Five other financial institutions, including Barclays, R.B.S. and UBS, have paid more than $3 billion combined to regulators in the United States, Britain and Switzerland over the manipulation of the LIBOR rate.